fredag 21 september 2007


Belgium: *Royal Hierarchial* (Protectoritarian) – Protectoritarian/French rule


Prussia: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism


Netherlands: XRoyalism -- *Presidential*


Ireland: Royal Executivian – Xroyalism/XRepresentativian


Norway: #Royal Absolutism# -- Royal Hierarchial
Saxony: XRoyalism – Royal Hierarchial


Bavaria: Royal Absolutism – Protectoritarian
Belgium: Protectoritarian/French rule – Protectoritarian/Representativian/British rule-Dutch rule
Ethiopia: *Royal Hierarchial*/*Royal Authoritarian* -- *Royal Authoritarian*


Scotland: Royalism -- #Royalism#


Hungary: XRoyalism -- Royalism


Belgium: Protectoritarian/Representativian/British rule-Dutch rule -- *Royal Authoritarian*/§ Royal Feudalism

Finland: *Hierarchial/#Royal Absolutism# -- §Revolutionary/Russian rule


Bavaria: Protectoritarian --
Wallachia: Protectoritarian -- § Royal Absolutism??
Hanover: -- Protectoritarian


Mauritius: Dutch rule – French rule (West Indies)
France: Royal Absolutism -- *Semi-Absolutism*


Wallachia: §Royal -- Protectoritarian


Bahamas: British rule – British rule*


Sweden: Royal Absolutism -- Interim
Saxony: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian


Ireland: XRoyalism/XRepresentativian – Royal Authoritarian/Representativian
Iran: *Royal Authoritarian* -- §*Royal Authoritarian*


Finland: §Revolutionary/Russian rule -- #XRoyal Parliamentarian#
Estonia: #Royal Absolutism#/#Interim -- Protectoritarian
Austria: Royal Absolutism -- Royal Hierarchial (year ??)
Sweden: Interim – Royal Parliamentarian


Norway: Royal Hierarchial -- #Royal Absolutism


France: *Semi-Absolutism* -- *Royal Absolutism*



Iran: §*Royal Authoritarian* -- *Royal Authoritarian*


Iran: *Royal Authoritarian* -- Revolutionary

Iran: Revolutionary -- *Authoritarian*


Guinea: Fulani established


Poland: Semi-Royalism – Royalism
Poland: Royalism – Semi-Royalism
Iran: *Authoritarian* -- *Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Absolutism


Württemberg: Royal Hierarchial -- XRoyalism
Oman: (Portuguese rule) – Persian rule


France: *Royal Absolutism -- §Royal Absolutism§
Bavaria: -- Protectoritarian
United Kingdom: Royalism – Royal Parliamentarian
Scotland: #Royalism# -- #Royal Parliamentarian#


Bavaria: Protectoritarian – Royal Authoritarian §*Royal Feudalism*
Belgium: *Royal Authoritarian*/§*Royal Feudalism* – Protectoritarian, #Royal Absolutism#


Azerbaijan: Persian rule – Ottoman rule


Netherlands: *Presidential – Xroyalism
Azerbaijan: Ottoman rule – Khanates(city-states)
Iran: *Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Absolutism -- *Royal Authoritarian*
Saudi Arabia


Belgium: Protectoritarian, #Royal Absolutism# -- *Royal Authoritarian, §*Royal Feudalism*
Iran: *Royal Authoritarian* -- Revolutionary

Iran: Revolutionary -- Revolutionary*


Oman: Persian rule – Royal Absolutism
Iran: Revolutionary -- *Royal Authoritarian*


France: §Royal Absolutism§ -- *Semi-Absolutism*
Hungary: Royalism -- XRoyalism


Iran: *Royal Authoritarian* -- *Royal Authoritarian* (no ctual change)


Mecklenburg(Schwerin+Strelitz): -- XRoyalism
Ethiopia: *Royal Authoritarian* --


Canada: French rule-British rule – British rule


Netherlands: XRoyalism – Interim/*XRoyalism*


United Kingdom: Royal Parliamentarian -- Royalism
Scotland: #Royal Parliamentarian# -- #Royalism#


Philippines: Spanish rule – British rule


Württemberg: XRoyalism --
Philippines: British rule – Spanish rule
Canada: British rule – British rule*
Dominica: British rule – British rule:Representativian


Netherlands: Interim/*XRoyalism* -- XRoyalism


Mauritius: -- French rule
Poland: Semi-Royalism -- Royalism


Egypt: Ottoman rule: Protectoritarian(Federal) – Self-rule:Royal Absolutism
Egypt: Self-rule:Royal Absolutism –
Nepal: -- Independence
Poland: Royalism – Semi-Royalism


Ethiopia: -- *Royal Feudalism*


Greece: Protectoritarian – Uni-Revolutionary
Greece: Uni-Revolutionary -- Protectoritarian


France: *Semi-Absolutism* -- *Absolutism*


Finland: #Royal Parliamentarian# -- #Royal Authoritarian#/Representativian
Sweden: Royal Parliamentarian – Royal Authoritarian


France: *Absolutism* -- *Royal Absolutism*


Poland: Semi-Royalism -- *XRoyal Parliamentarian*


Argentina: Protectoritarian – Rio de la Plata:Protectoritarian
Korea: *Royal Feudalism* -- *Royal Authoritarian*


Iran: *Royal Authoritarian* -- *Royal Feudalism*


Guyana: Dutch rule --


Trinidad: Spanish rule – (Tobago-French rule)


Bahamas: British rule – Spanish rule


Grenada: French rule – British rule
United KINGDOM: Royalism – Royal Parliamentarian
Scotland: #Royalism# -- #Royal Parliamentarian#
Bahamas: Spanish rule – British rule


Hungary: XRoyalism – Royal Absolutism/Royal Hierarchial


Poland: *XRoyal Parliamentarian* -- Royalism


France: *Royal Absolutism* -- Royal Authoritaian/Royal Hierarchial
Belgium: *Royal Authoritarian*, §*Royal Feudalism* -- #Royal Absolutism#


Japan: *Authoritarian* -- *Feudalism*
Bavaria: Royal Authoritarian(XRoyalism) – Royal Hierarchial
Uganda: BugandaBunyoro established
Hesse-Cassel: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Absolutism
“Romania”: Royal Feudalism – Royal Absolutism
Saxony: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Hierarchial

The 18th Century lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.
Historians sometimes specifically define the 18th Century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example the "short" 18th Century may be defined as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution,[1][2] while the "long" eighteenth century may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1689 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815[3] or even later.[4]

The storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789, an iconic event of the French Revolution.
1 Events
1.1 1700s
1.2 1710s
1.3 1720s
1.4 1730s
1.5 1740s
1.6 1750s
1.7 1760s
1.8 1770s
1.9 1780s
1.10 1790s
2 Significant people
3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
4 References
5 Decades and years

[edit] Events

[edit] 1700s

Union flag of The Kingdom of Great Britain
1700-21: Russia supplants Sweden as the dominant Baltic power after the Great Northern War.
1701-1714: War of the Spanish Succession
1703: Saint Petersburg founded by Peter the Great. Russian capital until 1918.
1707: Act of Union passed merging the Scottish and the English Parliaments, thus establishing The Kingdom of Great Britain.
1707: After Aurangzeb's death, the Mughal Empire enters a long decline.

[edit] 1710s
1715: First Jacobite Rebellion breaks out
1715: Louis XIV died leaving France deep in debt.
1718: City of New Orleans founded by the French in North America

[edit] 1720s
1720: The South Sea Bubble
1721: Robert Walpole became the first Prime Minister of Great Britain (de facto).
1721: Treaty of Nystad signed, ending the Great Northern War.
1722-23: Russo-Persian War
1722: Afghans conquered Iran, ending the Safavid dynasty.
1722: Kangxi Emperor of China died.
1726: The enormous Chinese encyclopedia Gujin Tushu Jicheng of over 100 million written Chinese characters in over 800,000 pages is printed in 60 different copies using copper-based Chinese movable type printing.

[edit] 1730s

Qianlong Emperor
1733-38: War of the Polish Succession
1735-39: Russo-Turkish War
1735-99: The Qianlong Emperor of China oversaw a huge expansion in territory.
1736: Nadir Shah assumed title of Shah of Persia and founded the Afsharid dynasty. Ruled until his death in 1747.
1736: Qing Dynasty Chinese court painters recreate Zhang Zeduan's classic panoramic painting, Along the River During Qingming Festival.
1739: Nadir Shah defeated the Mughals and sacked Delhi.

[edit] 1740s
1740: Frederick the Great comes to power in Prussia.
1740-48: War of the Austrian Succession
1741: Russians began settling the Aleutian Islands.
1745: Second Jacobite Rebellion began in Scotland.
1747: Ahmed Shah Durrani founded the Durrani Empire in modern day Afghanistan.

[edit] 1750s
1750: Peak of the Little Ice Age
1755: The Lisbon earthquake
1756-63: Seven Years' War fought among European powers in various theaters around the world.
1757: Battle of Plassey signaled the beginning of British rule in India.

[edit] 1760s

Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia
1760: George III became King of Britain.
1762-96: Reign of Catherine the Great of Russia.
1766-99: Anglo-Mysore Wars
1767: Burmese conquered the Ayutthaya kingdom.
1768: Gurkhas conquered Nepal.
1768-1774: Russo-Turkish War
1769: Spanish missionaries established the first of 21 missions in California.
1769-73: The Bengal famine of 1770 killed one third of the Indian population.

[edit] 1770s
1772-1795: The Partitions of Poland ended the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and erased Poland from the map for 123 years.
1772 Gustav III of Sweden stages a coup d'état and takes big political power, becoming almost an absolute monarch.
1775-1782: First Anglo-Maratha War
1775-1783: American Revolutionary War
1779-1879: Xhosa Wars between British and Boer settlers and the Xhosas in South Africa

[edit] 1780s
1785-95: Northwest Indian War between the United States and Native Americans
1787: Freed slaves from London founded Freetown in present-day Sierra Leone.
1788: First European settlement established in Australia at Sydney.
1789: George Washington elected President of the United States. Served until 1797.
1789-99: The French Revolution

[edit] 1790s

The Haitian Revolution
1791-1804: The Haitian Revolution
1792-1815: The Great French War started as the French Revolutionary Wars which lead into the Napoleonic Wars.
1792: New York Stock & Exchange Board founded.
1793: Upper Canada bans slavery.
1795: Pinckney's Treaty between the United States and Spain granted the Mississippi Territory to the US.
1796: British ejected Dutch from Ceylon.
1797: Napoleon's invasion and partition of the Republic of Venice ended over 1,000 years of independence for the Serene Republic.
1798-1800: Quasi-War between the United States and France.
1799: Napoleon staged a coup d'état and became dictator of France.
1799: Dutch East India Company is dissolved.

[edit] Significant people

Johann Sebastian Bach
Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Italian mathematician[5]
Ahmad Shah Abdali, Afghan King
Ueda Akinari, Japanese writer
Jean le Rond d'Alembert, French mathematician, physicist and encyclopedist
Queen Anne, British monarch
Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor
Bach, German composer
Laura Bassi, Italian scientist, the first European female college teacher[5]
George Berkeley, Irish empiricist philosopher
Pierre Beaumarchais, French writer
Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher and reformer
Daniel Bernoulli, Swiss mathematician and physicist
William Blake, English artist and poet
François Boucher, French painter
Edmund Burke, British statesman and philosopher
Robert Burns, Scottish poet
Giacomo Casanova, Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer
Catherine the Great, Russian Tsaritsa
Cao Xueqin, Chinese writer
Alexis Clairault, French mathematician
James Cook, British navigator
François Couperin, French composer
Denis Diderot, French writer and philosopher
Eugenio Espejo, Ecuadorian scientist
Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter
Benjamin Franklin, American scientist and statesman
Frederick the Great, Prussian monarch
Thomas Gainsborough, English painter
Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, physicist and astronomer
King George III, British monarch
Christoph Willibald Gluck, German composer
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German writer
Francesco Geminiani, Italian violinist, composer, and music theorist.
George Frideric Handel, German-English composer
Alexander Hamilton, American statesman
Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer
Eliza Haywood, English writer

Samuel Johnson
William Hogarth, English painter and engraver
David Hume, Scottish philosopher
Thomas Jefferson, American statesman
Edward Jenner, English inventor of vaccination
Jiang Tingxi, Chinese artist and scholar
Samuel Johnson, British writer and literary critic
Joseph II, Austrian Emperor
Kangxi Emperor, China
Immanuel Kant, German philosopher
Pierre Choderlos de Laclos, French writer
Joseph Louis Lagrange, Italian-French mathematician and physicist
Pierre Simon Laplace, French physicist and mathematician
John Law, Scottish economist
Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian scientist
Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist
Adrien-Marie Legendre, French mathematician
Alphonsus Liguori, Italian bishop, founder of Redemptorists, Saint
Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné), Swedish biologist

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Louis XV of France, French monarch
Louis XVI of France, French monarch
James Madison, American statesman
Maria Theresa of Austria, Austrian Empress
Marie Antoinette, Austrian-born Queen of France
Michikinikwa, Miami tribe chief and war leader
Honoré Mirabeau French writer and politician
Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, French thinker
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer
Nadir Shah, Persian King
Thomas Paine, British intellectual
Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great), Russian Tsar
Pius VI, Roman Pope
François-André Danican Philidor, French composer and chess master

Marquis of Pombal, Portuguese Prime Minister
Alexander Pope, British poet
Qianlong Emperor, China
Francis II Rákóczi, prince of Hungary and Transylvania, Revolutionary leader
Jean-Philippe Rameau, French composer
Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Italian-born Russian architect
Sir Joshua Reynolds, British painter
Maximilien Robespierre, French revolutionary leader
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French writer and philosopher
Marquis de Sade, French writer and philosopher
Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer.
Friedrich Schiller, German writer
John Small, English cricketer
Adam Smith, Scottish economist and philosopher
Laurence Sterne, British writer
Edward "Lumpy" Stevens, English cricketer

George Washington
Alexander Suvorov, Russian military leader
Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish scientist, thinker and mystic
Jonathan Swift, Anglo-Irish satirist
Toussaint L'Ouverture, Haitian revolutionary leader
Túpac Amaru II, Peruvian revolutionary
Kitagawa Utamaro, Japanese printmaker and painter
Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer
Voltaire, French writer and philosopher
Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, Arab Islamic theologian and founder of Wahhabism
Robert Walpole, British Prime Minister
George Washington, American general and first President of USA
James Watt, Scottish scientist and inventor
Antoine Watteau, French painter
John Wesley, British churchman, founder of Methodism
Mary Wollstonecraft, British writer and feminist
William Pitt, British Prime Minister
Yuan Mei, Chinese poet, scholar and artist
Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf, German religious writer and bishop
Antonio Stradivari, violin maker in Cremona, Italy
See Founding Fathers of the United States

[edit] Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Main articles: Timeline of invention#18th century and Timeline_of_scientific_discoveries#18th_century

The Spinning Jenny
1709: The first piano was built by Bartolomeo Cristofori
1712: Steam Engine invented by Thomas Newcomen.
1717: The diving bell was successfully tested by Edmond Halley, sustainable to a depth of 55 ft.
c. 1730: The octant navigational tool was developed by John Hadley in England, and Thomas Godfrey in America
1736: Europeans discovered rubber - the discovery was made by Charles-Marie de la Condamine while on expedition in South America. It was named in 1770 by Joseph Priestly
c. 1740: Modern steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman
1741: Vitus Bering discovered Alaska
1745: The Leyden jar invented by Ewald von Kleist was the first electrical capacitor
1751 - 1785: The French Encyclopédie
1755: The English Dictionary by Samuel Johnson
1755: The tallest wooden Bodhisattva statue in the world is erected at Puning Temple, Chengde, China.
1764: The Spinning Jenny created by James Hargreaves brought on the Industrial Revolution
1765: James Watt enhances Newcomen's steam engine, allowing new steel technologies
1761: The problem of Longitude was finally resolved by the fourth chronometer of John Harrison
17681779: James Cook mapped the boundaries of the Pacific Ocean and discovered many Pacific Islands
1771: The enormous Putuo Zongcheng Temple complex of Chengde, China is completed
17731782: The Qing Dynasty huge literary compilation Siku Quanshu
1776: The Wealth of Nations, foundation of the modern theory of economy, was published by Adam Smith
1779: Photosynthesis was first discovered by Jan Ingenhousz of the Netherlands
1798: Edward Jenner publishes a treatise about smallpox vaccination
1799: Rosetta stone discovered by Napoleon's troops
Over the period 1700 to 1750 tea establishes itself as the British national drink.

[edit] References

The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
^ Anderson, M. S. (1979). Historians and the Eighteenth-Century Europe, 1715–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198225482.
^ Ribeiro, Aileen (2002). Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe 1715-1789 (revised edition). Yale University Press. ISBN 0300091516.
^ Marshall, P. J. (Editor) (2001). The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford History of the British Empire). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0199246777. , "Introduction" by P. J. Marshall, page 1
^ O'Gorman, Frank (1997). The Long Eighteenth Century: British Political and Social History 1688-1832 (The Arnold History of Britain Series). A Hodder Arnold Publication. ISBN 0340567511.
^ a b Porter, Roy (Editor) (2003). The Cambridge History of Science, Volume 4: The Eighteenth Century (The Cambridge History of Science). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521572436. , "The Philosopher's Beard: Women and Gender in Science" by Londra Schiebinger, pages 184-210

[edit] Decades and years